1. Education

Your suggestion is on its way!

An email with a link to:


was emailed to:

Thanks for sharing About.com with others!

An English Grammar


by W. M. Baskervill & J. W. Sewell

Preface | Introduction | Part I, Parts of Speech: Nouns | Pronouns | Adjectives | Articles | Verbs & Verbals: Verbs | Verbals | How to Parse | Adverbs | Conjunctions | Prepositions | Words That Need Watching | Interjections | Analysis: Form | Number: Simple | Contracted | Complex | Compound | Syntax: Introductory | Nouns | Pronouns | Adjectives | Articles | Verbs | Indirect Discourse | Verbals | Infinitives | Adverbs | Conjunctions | Prepositions |





338. But the division of sentences most necessary to analysis is the division, not according to the form in which a thought is put, but according to how many statements there are.

The one we shall consider first is the simple sentence.

339. A simple sentence is one which contains a single statement, question, or command: for example, "The quality of mercy is not strained;" "What wouldst thou do, old man?" "Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar."

340. Every sentence must contain two parts,-a subject and a predicate.

The predicate of a sentence is a verb or verb phrase which says something about the subject.

In order to get a correct definition of the subject, let us examine two specimen sentences:-

1. But now all is to be changed.

2. A rare old plant is the ivy green.

In the first sentence we find the subject by placing the word what before the predicate,- What is to be changed? Answer, all. Consequently, we say all is the subject of the sentence.

But if we try this with the second sentence, we have some trouble,- What is the ivy green? Answer, a rare old plant. But we cannot help seeing that an assertion is made, not of a rare old plant, but about the ivy green; and the real subject is the latter. Sentences are frequently in this inverted order, especially in poetry; and our definition must be the following, to suit all cases:-

The subject is that which answers the question who or what placed before the predicate, and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something.

341. In the interrogative sentence, the subject is frequently after the verb. Either the verb is the first word of the sentence, or an interrogative pronoun, adjective, or adverb that asks about the subject. In analyzing such sentences, always reduce them to the order of a statement. Thus,-

(1) "When should this scientific education be commenced?"

(2) "This scientific education should be commenced when?"

(3) "What wouldst thou have a good great man obtain?"

(4) "Thou wouldst have a good great man obtain what?"

In the imperative sentence, the subject (you, thou, or ye) is in most cases omitted, and is to be supplied; as, "[You] behold her single in the field."


Name the subject and the predicate in each of the following sentences:-

1. The shadow of the dome of pleasure
Floated midway on the waves.

2. Hence originated their contempt for terrestrial distinctions.

3. Nowhere else on the Mount of Olives is there a view like this.

4. In the sands of Africa and Arabia the camel is a sacred and precious gift.

5. The last of all the Bards was he.

6. Slavery they can have anywhere.

7. Listen, on the other hand, to an ignorant man.

8. What must have been the emotions of the Spaniards!

9. Such was not the effect produced on the sanguine spirit of the general.

10. What a contrast did these children of southern Europe present to the Anglo-Saxon races!


342. All the elements of the simple sentence are as follows:-

(1) The subject.

(2) The predicate.

(3) The object.

(4) The complements.

(5) Modifiers.

(6) Independent elements.

The subject and predicate have been discussed.

343. The object may be of two kinds:-

(1) The DIRECT OBJECT is that word or expression which answers the question who or what placed after the verb; or the direct object names that toward which the action of the predicate is directed.

It must be remembered that any verbal may have an object; but for the present we speak of the object of the verb, and by object we mean the direct object.

(2) The INDIRECT OBJECT is a noun or its equivalent used as the modifier of a verb or verbal to name the person or thing for whose benefit an action is performed.

Examples of direct and indirect objects are, direct, "She seldom saw her course at a glance;" indirect, "I give thee this to wear at the collar."

344. A complement is a word added to a verb of incomplete predication to complete its meaning.

Notice that a verb of incomplete predication may be of two kinds,-transitive and intransitive.

The transitive verb often requires, in addition to the object, a word to define fully the action that is exerted upon the object; for example, "Ye call me chief." Here the verb call has an object me (if we leave out chief), and means summoned; but chief belongs to the verb, and me here is not the object simply of call, but of call chief, just as if to say, "Ye honor me." This word completing a transitive verb is sometimes called a factitive object, or second object, but it is a true complement.

The fact that this is a complement can be more clearly seen when the verb is in the passive. See sentence 19, in exercise following Sec. 364.

An intransitive verb, especially the forms of be, seem, appear, taste, feel, become, etc., must often have a word to complete the meaning: as, for instance, "Brow and head were round, and of massive weight;" "The good man, he was now getting old, above sixty;" "Nothing could be more copious than his talk;" "But in general he seemed deficient in laughter."

All these complete intransitive verbs. The following are examples of complements of transitive verbs: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick;" "He was termed Thomas, or, more familiarly, Thom of the Gills;" "A plentiful fortune is reckoned necessary, in the popular judgment, to the completion of this man of the world."

345. The modifiers and independent elements will be discussed in detail in Secs. 351, 352, 355.

346. A phrase is a group of words, not containing a verb, but used as a single modifier.

As to form, phrases are of three kinds:-

(1) PREPOSITIONAL, introduced by a preposition: for example, "Such a convulsion is the struggle of gradual suffocation, as in drowning; and, in the original Opium Confessions, I mentioned a case of that nature."

(2) PARTICIPIAL, consisting of a participle and the words dependent on it. The following are examples: "Then retreating into the warm house, and barring the door, she sat down to undress the two youngest children."

(3) INFINITIVE, consisting of an infinitive and the words dependent upon it; as in the sentence, "She left her home forever in order to present herself at the Dauphin's court."

Things used as Subject.

347. The subject of a simple sentence may be-

(1) Noun: "There seems to be no interval between greatness and meanness." Also an expression used as a noun; as, "A cheery, ' Ay, ay, sir!' rang out in response."

(2) Pronoun: "We are fortified by every heroic anecdote."

(3) Infinitive phrase: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method."

(4) Gerund: "There will be sleeping enough in the grave;" "What signifies wishing and hoping for better things?"

(5) Adjective used as noun: "The good are befriended even by weakness and defect;" "The dead are there."

(6) Adverb: "Then is the moment for the humming bird to secure the insects."

348. The subject is often found after the verb-

(1) By simple inversion: as, "Therein has been, and ever will be, my deficiency,-the talent of starting the game;" "Never, from their lips, was heard one syllable to justify," etc.

(2) In interrogative sentences, for which see Sec. 341.

(3) After "it introductory:" "It ought not to need to print in a reading room a caution not to read aloud."

In this sentence, it stands in the position of a grammatical subject; but the real or logical subject is to print, etc. It merely serves to throw the subject after a verb.

There is one kind of expression that is really an infinitive, though disguised as a prepositional phrase: "It is hard for honest men to separate their country from their party, or their religion from their sect."

The for did not belong there originally, but obscures the real subject,-the infinitive phrase. Compare Chaucer: "No wonder is a lewed man to ruste" (No wonder [it] is [for] a common man to rust).

(4) After "there introductory," which has the same office as it in reversing the order (see Sec. 292): "There was a description of the destructive operations of time;" "There are asking eyes, asserting eyes, prowling eyes."

Things used as Direct Object.

349. The words used as direct object are mainly the same as those used for subject, but they will be given in detail here, for the sake of presenting examples:-

(1) Noun: "Each man has his own vocation." Also expressions used as nouns: for example, "' By God, and by Saint George!' said the King."

(2) Pronoun: "Memory greets them with the ghost of a smile."

(3) Infinitive: "We like to see everything do its office."

(4) Gerund: "She heard that sobbing of litanies, or the thundering of organs."

(5) Adjective used as a noun: "For seventy leagues through the mighty cathedral, I saw the quick and the dead."

Things used as Complement.

350. As complement of an intransitive verb,-

(1) Noun: "She had been an ardent patriot."

(2) Pronoun: "Who is she in bloody coronation robes from Rheims?" "This is she, the shepherd girl."

(3) Adjective: "Innocence is ever simple and credulous."

(4) Infinitive: "To enumerate and analyze these relations is to teach the science of method."

(5) Gerund: "Life is a pitching of this penny,-heads or tails;" "Serving others is serving us."

(6) A prepositional phrase: "His frame is on a larger scale;" "The marks were of a kind not to be mistaken."

It will be noticed that all these complements have a double office,-completing the predicate, and explaining or modifying the subject.

As complement of a transitive verb,-

(1) Noun: "I will not call you cowards."

(2) Adjective: "Manners make beauty superfluous and ugly;" "Their tempers, doubtless, are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulation." In this last sentence, the object is made the subject by being passive, and the words italicized are still complements. Like all the complements in this list, they are adjuncts of the object, and, at the same time, complements of the predicate.

(3) Infinitive, or infinitive phrase: "That cry which made me look a thousand ways;" "I hear the echoes throng."

(4) Participle, or participial phrase: "I can imagine him pushing firmly on, trusting the hearts of his countrymen."

(5) Prepositional phrase:"My antagonist would render my poniard and my speed of no use to me."


I. Modifiers of Subject, Object, or Complement.

351. Since the subject and object are either nouns or some equivalent of a noun, the words modifying them must be adjectives or some equivalent of an adjective; and whenever the complement is a noun, or the equivalent of the noun, it is modified by the same words and word groups that modify the subject and the object.

These modifiers are as follows:-

(1) A possessive: "My memory assures me of this;" "She asked her father's permission."

(2) A word in apposition: "Theodore Wieland, the prisoner at the bar, was now called upon for his defense;" "Him, this young idolater, I have seasoned for thee."

(3) An adjective: "Great geniuses have the shortest biographies;" "Her father was a prince in Lebanon,- proud, unforgiving, austere."

(4) Prepositional phrase: "Are the opinions of a man on right and wrong on fate and causation, at the mercy of a broken sleep or an indigestion?" "The poet needs a ground in popular tradition to work on."

(5) Infinitive phrase: "The way to know him is to compare him, not with nature, but with other men;" "She has a new and unattempted problem to solve;" "The simplest utterances are worthiest to be written."

(6) Participial phrase: "Another reading, given at the request of a Dutch lady, was the scene from King John;" "This was the hour already appointed for the baptism of the new Christian daughter."

Exercise. -In each sentence in Sec. 351, tell whether the subject, object, or complement is modified.

II. Modifiers of the Predicate.

352. Since the predicate is always a verb, the word modifying it must be an adverb or its equivalent:-

(1) Adverb:"Slowly and sadly we laid him down."

(2) Prepositional phrase: "The little carriage is creeping on at one mile an hour;" "In the twinkling of an eye, our horses had carried us to the termination of the umbrageous isle."

In such a sentence as, "He died like a God," the word group like a God is often taken as a phrase; but it is really a contracted clause, the verb being omitted.

(3) Participial phrase:"She comes down from heaven to his help, interpreting for him the most difficult truths, and leading him from star to star."

(4) Infinitive phrase:"No imprudent, no sociable angel, ever dropped an early syllable to answer his longing."

(For participial and infinitive phrases, see further Secs. 357-363.)

(5) Indirect object:"I gave every man a trumpet;" "Give them not only noble teachings, but noble teachers."

These are equivalent to the phrases to every man and to them, and modify the predicate in the same way.

When the verb is changed from active to passive, the indirect object is retained, as in these sentences: "It is left you to find out the reason why;" "All such knowledge should be given her."

Or sometimes the indirect object of the active voice becomes the subject of the passive, and the direct object is retained: for example, "She is to be taught to extend the limits of her sympathy;" "I was shown an immense sarcophagus."

(6) Adverbial objective. These answer the question when, or how long, how far, etc., and are consequently equivalent to adverbs in modifying a predicate: "We were now running thirteen miles an hour;" "One way lies hope;" "Four hours before midnight we approached a mighty minster."


(a) Pick out subject, predicate, and (direct) object:-

1. This, and other measures of precaution, I took.

2. The pursuing the inquiry under the light of an end or final cause, gives wonderful animation, a sort of personality to the whole writing.

3. Why does the horizon hold me fast, with my joy and grief, in this center?

4. His books have no melody, no emotion, no humor, no relief to the dead prosaic level.

5. On the voyage to Egypt, he liked, after dinner, to fix on three or four persons to support a proposition, and as many to oppose it.

6. Fashion does not often caress the great, but the children of the great.

7. No rent roll can dignify skulking and dissimulation.

8. They do not wish to be lovely, but to be loved.

(b) Pick out the subject, predicate, and complement:

1. Evil, according to old philosophers, is good in the making.

2. But anger drives a man to say anything.

3. The teachings of the High Spirit are abstemious, and, in regard to particulars, negative.

4. Spanish diet and youth leave the digestion undisordered and the slumbers light.

5. Yet they made themselves sycophantic servants of the King of Spain.

6. A merciless oppressor hast thou been.

7. To the men of this world, to the animal strength and spirits, the man of ideas appears out of his reason.

8. I felt myself, for the first time, burthened with the anxieties of a man, and a member of the world.

(c) Pick out the direct and the indirect object in each:-

1. Not the less I owe thee justice.

2. Unhorse me, then, this imperial rider.

3. She told the first lieutenant part of the truth.

4. I promised her protection against all ghosts.

5. I gave him an address to my friend, the attorney.

6. Paint me, then, a room seventeen feet by twelve.

(d) Pick out the words and phrases in apposition:-

1. To suffer and to do, that was thy portion in life.

2. A river formed the boundary,-the river Meuse.

3. In one feature, Lamb resembles Sir Walter Scott; viz., in the dramatic character of his mind and taste.

4. This view was luminously expounded by Archbishop Whately, the present Archbishop of Dublin.

5. Yes, at length the warrior lady, the blooming cornet, this nun so martial, this dragoon so lovely, must visit again the home of her childhood.

(e) Pick out the modifiers of the predicate:-

1. It moves from one flower to another like a gleam of light, upwards, downwards, to the right and to the left.

2. And hark! like the roar of the billows on the shore,
The cry of battle rises along their changing line.

3. Their intention was to have a gay, happy dinner, after their long confinement to a ship, at the chief hotel.

4. That night, in little peaceful Easedale, six children sat by a peat fire, expecting the return of their parents.

Compound Subject, Compound Predicate, etc.

353. Frequently in a simple sentence the writer uses two or more predicates to the same subject, two or more subjects of the same predicate, several modifiers, complements, etc.; but it is to be noticed that, in all such sentences as we quote below, the writers of them purposely combined them in single statements, and they are not to be expanded into compound sentences. In a compound sentence the object is to make two or more full statements.

Examples of compound subjects are, "By degrees Rip's awe and apprehension subsided;" "The name of the child, the air of the mother, the tone of her voice,-all awakened a train of recollections in his mind."

Sentences with compound predicates are, "The company broke up, and returned to the more important concerns of the election;" "He shook his head, shouldered the rusty firelock, and, with a heart full of trouble and anxiety, turned his steps homeward."

Sentences with compound objects of the same verb are, "He caught his daughter and her child in his arms;" "Voyages and travels I would also have."

And so with complements, modifiers, etc.

Logical Subject and Logical Predicate.

354. The logical subject is the simple or grammatical subject, together with all its modifiers.

The logical predicate is the simple or grammatical predicate (that is, the verb), together with its modifiers, and its object or complement.

It is often a help to the student to find the logical subject and predicate first, then the grammatical subject and predicate. For example, in the sentence, "The situation here contemplated exposes a dreadful ulcer, lurking far down in the depths of human nature," the logical subject is the situation here contemplated, and the rest is the logical predicate. Of this, the simple subject is situation; the predicate, exposes; the object, ulcer, etc.

Independent Elements of the Sentence.

355. The following words and expressions are grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence; that is, they are not a necessary part, do not enter into its structure:-

(1) Person or thing addressed: "But you know them, Bishop;" "Ye crags and peaks, I'm with you once again."

(2) Exclamatory expressions: "But the lady-! Oh, heavens! will that spectacle ever depart from my dreams?"

The exclamatory expression, however, may be the person or thing addressed, same as (1), above: thus, "Ah, young sir! what are you about?" Or it may be an imperative, forming a sentence: "Oh, hurry, hurry, my brave young man!"

(3) Infinitive phrase thrown in loosely: "To make a long story short, the company broke up;" "Truth to say, he was a conscientious man."

(4) Prepositional phrase not modifying: "Within the railing sat, to the best of my remembrance, six quill-driving gentlemen;" "At all events, the great man of the prophecy had not yet appeared."

(5) Participial phrase:"But, generally speaking, he closed his literary toils at dinner;" "Considering the burnish of her French tastes, her noticing even this is creditable."

(6) Single words: as, "Oh, yes! everybody knew them;" "No, let him perish;" "Well, he somehow lived along;" "Why, grandma, how you're winking!" "Now, this story runs thus."

There are some adverbs, such as perhaps, truly, really, undoubtedly, besides, etc., and some conjunctions, such as however, then, moreover, therefore, nevertheless, etc., that have an office in the sentence, and should not be confused with the words spoken of above. The words well, now, why, and so on, are independent when they merely arrest the attention without being necessary.


356. In their use, prepositional phrases may be,

(1) Adjectival, modifying a noun, pronoun, or word used as a noun: for example, "He took the road to King Richard's pavilion;" "I bring reports on that subject from Ascalon."

(2) Adverbial, limiting in the same way an adverb limits: as, "All nature around him slept in calm moonshine or in deep shadow;" "Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife."

(3) Independent, not dependent on any word in the sentence (for examples, see Sec. 355, 4).


357. It will be helpful to sum up here the results of our study of participles and participial phrases, and to set down all the uses which are of importance in analysis:-

(1) The adjectival use, already noticed, as follows:-

(a) As a complement of a transitive verb, and at the same time a modifier of the object (for an example, see Sec. 350, 4).

(b) As a modifier of subject, object, or complement (see Sec. 351, 6).

(2) The adverbial use, modifying the predicate, instances of which were seen in Sec. 352, 3. In these the participial phrases connect closely with the verb, and there is no difficulty in seeing that they modify.

There are other participial phrases which are used adverbially, but require somewhat closer attention; thus, "The letter of introduction, containing no matters of business, was speedily run through."

In this sentence, the expression containing no matters of business does not describe letter, but it is equivalent to because it contained no matters of business, and hence is adverbial, modifying was speedily run through.

Notice these additional examples:-

Being a great collector of everything relating to Milton [reason, "Because I was," etc.], I had naturally possessed myself of Richardson the painter's thick octavo volumes.

Neither the one nor the other writer was valued by the public, both having [since they had] a long warfare to accomplish of contumely and ridicule.

Wilt thou, therefore, being now wiser [as thou art] in thy thoughts, suffer God to give by seeming to refuse?

(3) Wholly independent in meaning and grammar. See Sec. 355, (5), and these additional examples:-

Assuming the specific heat to be the same as that of water, the entire mass of the sun would cool down to 15,000° Fahrenheit in five thousand years.

This case excepted, the French have the keenest possible sense of everything odious and ludicrous in posing.


358. The various uses of the infinitive give considerable trouble, and they will be presented here in full, or as nearly so as the student will require.

I. The verbal use.

(1) Completing an incomplete verb, but having no other office than a verbal one.

(a) With may (might), can (could), should, would, seem, ought, etc.: "My weekly bill used invariably to be about fifty shillings;" "There, my dear, he should not have known them at all;" "He would instruct her in the white man's religion, and teach her how to be happy and good."

(b) With the forms of be, being equivalent to a future with obligation, necessity, etc.: as in the sentences, "Ingenuity and cleverness are to be rewarded by State prizes;" "'The Fair Penitent' was to be acted that evening."

(c) With the definite forms of go, equivalent to a future: "I was going to repeat my remonstrances;" "I am not going to dissert on Hood's humor."

(2) Completing an incomplete transitive verb, but also belonging to a subject or an object (see Sec. 344 for explanation of the complements of transitive verbs): "I am constrained every moment to acknowledge a higher origin for events" (retained with passive); "Do they not cause the heart to beat, and the eyes to fill?"

359. II. The substantive use, already examined; but see the following examples for further illustration:-

(1) As the subject: "To have the wall there, was to have the foe's life at their mercy;" "To teach is to learn."

(2) As the object: "I like to hear them tell their old stories;" "I don't wish to detract from any gentleman's reputation."

(3) As complement: See examples under (1), above.

(4) In apposition, explanatory of a noun preceding: as, "She forwarded to the English leaders a touching invitation to unite with the French;" "He insisted on his right to forget her."

360. III. The adjectival use, modifying a noun that may be a subject, object, complement, etc.: for example, "But there was no time to be lost;" "And now Amyas had time to ask Ayacanora the meaning of this;" "I have such a desire to be well with my public" (see also Sec. 351, 5).

361. IV. The adverbial use, which may be to express-

(1) Purpose:"The governor, Don Guzman, sailed to the eastward only yesterday to look for you;" "Isn't it enough to bring us to death, to please that poor young gentleman's fancy?"

(2) Result:"Don Guzman returns to the river mouth to find the ship a blackened wreck;" "What heart could be so hard as not to take pity on the poor wild thing?"

(3) Reason:"I am quite sorry to part with them;" "Are you mad, to betray yourself by your own cries?" "Marry, hang the idiot, to bring me such stuff!"

(4) Degree:"We have won gold enough to serve us the rest of our lives;" "But the poor lady was too sad to talk except to the boys now and again."

(5) Condition:"You would fancy, to hear McOrator after dinner, the Scotch fighting all the battles;" "To say what good of fashion we can, it rests on reality" (the last is not a simple sentence, but it furnishes a good example of this use of the infinitive).

362. The fact that the infinitives in Sec. 361 are used adverbially, is evident from the meaning of the sentences.

Whether each sentence containing an adverbial infinitive has the meaning of purpose, result, etc., may be found out by turning the infinitive into an equivalent clause, such as those studied under subordinate conjunctions.

To test this, notice the following:-

In (1), to look means that he might look; to please is equivalent to that he may please,-both purpose clauses.

In (2), to find shows the result of the return; not to take pity is equivalent to that it would not take pity.

In (3), to part means because I part, etc.; and to betray and to bring express the reason, equivalent to that you betray, etc.

In (4), to serve and to talk are equivalent to [ as much gold] as will serve us; and "too sad to talk" also shows degree.

In (5), to hear means if you should hear, and to say is equivalent to if we say,-both expressing condition.

363. V. The independent use, which is of two kinds,-

(1) Thrown loosely into the sentence; as in Sec. 355, (3).

(2) Exclamatory:"I a philosopher! I advancepretensions;" "'He to die!' resumed the bishop." (See also Sec. 268, 4.)


364. In analyzing simple sentences, give-

(1) The predicate. If it is an incomplete verb, give the complement (Secs. 344 and 350) and its modifiers (Sec. 351).

(2) The object of the verb (Sec. 349).

(3) Modifiers of the object (Sec. 351).

(4) Modifiers of the predicate (Sec. 352).

(5) The subject (Sec. 347).

(6) Modifiers of the subject (Sec. 351).

(7) Independent elements (Sec. 355).

This is not the same order that the parts of the sentence usually have; but it is believed that the student will proceed more easily by finding the predicate with its modifiers, object, etc., and then finding the subject by placing the question who or what before it.

Exercise in Analyzing Simple Sentences.

Analyze the following according to the directions given:-

1. Our life is March weather, savage and serene in one hour.

2. I will try to keep the balance true.

3. The questions of Whence? What? and Whither? and the solution of these, must be in a life, not in a book.

4. The ward meetings on election days are not softened by any misgiving of the value of these ballotings.

5. Our English Bible is a wonderful specimen of the strength and music of the English language.

6. Through the years and the centuries, through evil agents, through toys and atoms, a great and beneficent tendency irresistibly streams.

7. To be hurried away by every event, is to have no political system at all.

8. This mysticism the ancients called ecstasy,-a getting-out of their bodies to think.

9. He risked everything, and spared nothing, neither ammunition, nor money, nor troops, nor generals, nor himself.

10. We are always in peril, always in a bad plight, just on the edge of destruction, and only to be saved by invention and courage.

11. His opinion is always original, and to the purpose.

12. To these gifts of nature, Napoleon added the advantage of having been born to a private and humble fortune.

13. The water, like a witch's oils,
Burnt green and blue and white.

14. We one day descried some shapeless object floating at a distance.

15. Old Adam, the carrion crow,
The old crow of Cairo;
He sat in the shower, and let it flow
Under his tail and over his crest.

16. It costs no more for a wise soul to convey his quality to other men.

17. It is easy to sugar to be sweet.

18. At times the black volume of clouds overhead seemed rent asunder by flashes of lightning.

19. The whole figure and air, good and amiable otherwise, might be called flabby and irresolute.

20. I have heard Coleridge talk, with eager energy, two stricken hours, and communicate no meaning whatsoever to any individual.

21. The word conscience has become almost confined, in popular use, to the moral sphere.

22. You may ramble a whole day together, and every moment discover something new.

23. She had grown up amidst the liberal culture of Henry's court a bold horsewoman, a good shot, a graceful dancer, a skilled musician, an accomplished scholar.

24. Her aims were simple and obvious,-to preserve her throne, to keep England out of war, to restore civil and religious order.

25. Fair name might he have handed down,
Effacing many a stain of former crime.

26. Of the same grandeur, in less heroic and poetic form, was the patriotism of Peel in recent history.

27. Oxford, ancient mother! hoary with ancestral honors, time-honored, and, haply, time-shattered power-I owe thee nothing!

28. The villain, I hate him and myself, to be a reproach to such goodness.

29. I dare this, upon my own ground, and in my own garden, to bid you leave the place now and forever.

30. Upon this shore stood, ready to receive her, in front of all this mighty crowd, the prime minister of Spain, the same Condé Olivarez.

31. Great was their surprise to see a young officer in uniform stretched within the bushes upon the ground.

32. She had made a two days' march, baggage far in the rear, and no provisions but wild berries.

33. This amiable relative, an elderly man, had but one foible, or perhaps one virtue, in this world.

34. Now, it would not have been filial or ladylike.

35. Supposing this computation to be correct, it must have been in the latitude of Boston, the present capital of New England.

36. The cry, "A strange vessel close aboard the frigate!" having already flown down the hatches, the ship was in an uproar.

37. But yield, proud foe, thy fleet
With the crews at England's feet.

38. Few in number, and that number rapidly perishing away through sickness and hardships; surrounded by a howling wilderness and savage tribes; exposed to the rigors of an almost arctic winter,-their minds were filled with doleful forebodings.

39. List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the forest.

40. In the Acadian land, on the shores of the Basin of Minas,
Distant, secluded, still, the little village of Grand-Pré
Lay in the fruitful valley.

41. Must we in all things look for the how, and the why, and the wherefore?

Preface | Introduction | Part I, Parts of Speech: Nouns | Pronouns | Adjectives | Articles | Verbs & Verbals: Verbs | Verbals | How to Parse | Adverbs | Conjunctions | Prepositions | Words That Need Watching | Interjections | Analysis: Form | Number: Simple | Contracted | Complex | Compound | Syntax: Introductory | Nouns | Pronouns | Adjectives | Articles | Verbs | Indirect Discourse | Verbals | Infinitives | Adverbs | Conjunctions | Prepositions |

©2017 About.com. All rights reserved.